By T.K. Ghose ,A. Fiechter, N.Blakebrough
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Extra info for Advances in Biochemical Engineering, Volume 008: Mass Transfer in Biotechnology
1 ~ TIME Fig. 24. Mixing time characteristics of various impellers 1791 type [80-83], and the impeller speed. For a given reactor and fixed operating conditions, mixing time can be affected strongly by the rheological nature of the fluid as can be seen from Fig. 25 [81 ] in which mixing time correlations for Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids are compared (turbine impeller). 1. Newtonian Fluids Several mixing time correlations have been developed for Newtonian fluids [80-88]. However, due to the complexity of the mixing process, the fact that different tracer methods give different results, and the somewhat arbitrary definition of the mixing time, different correlations can give significantly different estimates of mixing time.
For other correlations the reader is referred to the literature [80-89], the reviews of Wang and Humphrey  and Hyman  and in particular to the comprehensive treatise of Nagata. However, in all cases the reader should be aware that these correlations for Newtonian fluids were developed for unsparged systems containing no cell mass and may not be applicable to aerated reactors (see below). 2. , mixing time) with rheological properties and impeller characteristics. However, the author is aware of only two reported works addressed to the development of such correlations.
Furthermore, while a number of such correlations [ 114-118] have been developed for stirred-tank reactors, none have been based explicitly on process data and all are essentially unproven for analysis and design of fermenters. Nevertheless, as a rule of thumb one may assume generally that the mass transfer coefficient will increase (towards some limiting value) as the intensity of mixing increases: Turbulent conditions tend to enhance mass transfer rates. In the general case the observed rate of reaction will depend on both the intrinsic rate of reaction and the rate of mass transfer.
Advances in Biochemical Engineering, Volume 008: Mass Transfer in Biotechnology by T.K. Ghose ,A. Fiechter, N.Blakebrough