By Duncan McConnell B. S., M. S., Ph.D. (auth.)
The training of a quantity in this subject used to be undertaken with a few hesitancy on my half as the ramifications of the mineralogy of apatite contain either bio logical and actual sciences in very complex methods. This hesitancy could have arisen partially from the belief that huge ability will be required for you to extract the which means from the millions of papers that experience seemed in the prior 20 years; the duty of trying to extract and gather the usable details appeared monstrous. tremendously including to the trouble used to be the truth that a substantial part of those magazine articles comprise not anything of worth and additional confuse a most intricate subject. however, it was once proposal that a few of my formal schooling within the bio logical sciences, which has been drastically prolonged and augmented in past times fifteen years, may be built-in with my extra broad schooling and adventure in chemistry, crystallography, mineralogy, geology and physics in an effort to seasoned duce whatever that may relate to the mineral apatite and its super different occurences in nature. whilst it appeared necessary to indicate a number of the many vital facets during which this data bears on geology, agriculture, chemical engineering, drugs and dentistry.
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Additional info for Apatite: Its Crystal Chemistry, Mineralogy, Utilization, and Geologic and Biologic Occurrences
1 makes no pretense of being complete, but indicates compounds whose compositions have been reconciled with A lO (Z04)6(X)2 more or less precisely. PbsBi2(Si04)4(P04)z, for example, does not account for the X positions and therefore should be written PbsBi2(Si04)4(P04)2D2 in order to indicate their vacancy. A series of Sr-Nd silicates seems to indicate that occupancy of X positions is dependent upon the ratio of SrjNd . Before discussing this topic, however, afew additional comments on the tabulation seem desirable.
Physical Properties Co were similar to those produced by these ions in octahedral coordination. Theil' investigations involved silicates (in addition to phosphates) with the apatite structure that included Pb and Sr in addition to rare earths. 3. Electrical and Other Properties The dielectric constant (i. , the specific capacity of a material referred to the specific capacity of a vacuum) is given [35, p. 47 for radiofrequencies. 60. 69. Additional data are given by W APPLER . Theoretical discussions of the low dielectric loss of hydroxyapatite are not edifying insofar as they are based on an inadequate "refinement" of the location of the OH ions within the structure .
Vague references to "channels" in the apatite structure  carry the implication that the anions (F, OH or 0) are missing at sites (0, 0, 1/4; 0, 0, 3/4) and state: " ... " This speculation comprises a most dramatic violation of PAULING'S electrostatic valency principle and has no straightforward evidence to support it among naturally-occurring apatites. 2) does not suggest the presence of "openings" or "channels" of significant size inasmuch as the density is slightly greater than that of whitlockite [Caa(P0 4)2].
Apatite: Its Crystal Chemistry, Mineralogy, Utilization, and Geologic and Biologic Occurrences by Duncan McConnell B. S., M. S., Ph.D. (auth.)