By Professor William Labov, Sharon Ash, Associate Professor of Linguistics Charles Boberg
Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound switch
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The application of this database to the empirical conﬁrmation of the hypothesis depends upon the success of the normalization procedure which converts the 439 speakers to a common grid. This log mean normalization (Chapter 5) is generally effective in eliminating the acoustic differences that are the result of variation in vocal tract length, while preserving those social differences that are characteristic of the speech community (Nearey 1978; Hindle 1978; Labov 1994: Ch. 5; Adank 2003). 5 is a Plotnik mean ﬁle diagram for the 22 dialects to be deﬁned in Chapter 11.
E. u:, respelled in the French style as ou, diphthongized with further nucleus-glide differentiation in the Great Vowel Shift, in house, mouth, proud, now, cow. This process did not affect vowels before labials or velars or after /y/, which remain in the current /uw/ class: you, your, youth, soup, group, etc. E. and French sources, spelled u, eau, ew, ui, which were generally realized with a palatal onglide as /juw/. The loss of the glide after coronals in North America created the opposition of /iw/ and /uw/ in dew vs.
Three deﬁning terms are involved: Zones of Inﬂuence (ZI), Central Cities, and Urbanized Areas (UA). The selection of places to be sampled involves intersecting characteristics of the three levels, as will be explained below. The terms will ﬁrst be deﬁned, and then the selection criteria that produced the overall sampling plan will be described. Zone of Inﬂuence A Zone of Inﬂuence (ZI) is a set of counties. It is derived from the 1992 County Penetration Reports of the Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC).
Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change by Professor William Labov, Sharon Ash, Associate Professor of Linguistics Charles Boberg