By Erik Larsen, Ronald M. Aarts
Larsen (speech and listening to bioscience and know-how, Massachusetts Institute of expertise) and Aarts, a researcher within the deepest region within the Netherlands, research purposes of bandwidth extension (BWE) to song and speech, putting targeted emphasis on sign processing ideas. masking idea, functions, and algorithms, they assessment vital thoughts in psychoacoustics, sign processing, and loudspeaker conception, and advance the speculation and implementation of BWE utilized to low-frequency sound replica, perceptually coded audio, speech, and noise abatement. an summary of a BWE patent is incorporated. The e-book may be of curiosity to engineers, researchers, and postgraduate scholars in audio, sign processing, and speech.
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Additional resources for Audio Bandwidth Extension: Application of Psychoacoustics, Signal Processing and Loudspeaker Design
142]). In the Laplace domain, we have P (s) = s 2 ρSX(s)/(2πr). 5. 6 With a voltage or current step as the input, the displacement would be expected to reach its steady-state value in a fraction of a second, according to the traditional model. The displacement may, however, continue to increase. This phenomenon is called creep. Creep is due the viscoelastic effects (Knudsen and Jensen , Fl¨ugge ) of the spring (spider) and edge of the loudspeaker’s suspension. 11 Lumped-element model of the impedance-type analogy of an electrodynamic loudspeaker preceded by an LC high-pass crossover ﬁlter, which is not part of the actual model.
3) can be approximated by two normal distributions that correspond to the male and female voice, respectively. 5 Hz, respectively, whereas those for a female voice are twice as large. Conversational speech includes discourse as well as pause, and the proportion of actual speech periods relative to the total period is called ‘speech ratio’. In conversational speech, the speech ratio for individual talkers is about 1/3 (Furui ), and can be used as a feature for speech detection in a speech–music discriminator (Aarts and Toonen Dekkers ).
2 An inﬁnite impulse response (IIR) ﬁlter in direct form-I structure. The input signal x(k) is ﬁltered by the ﬁlter, yielding the output signal y(k). The boxes labeled ‘T ’ are one sample (unit) delay elements. The signal at each forward tap is multiplied with the corresponding coefﬁcients b, while the signal in the recursive (feedback) part is multiplied with the corresponding coefﬁcients a, respectively and the frequency response can be found by substituting z = e−i . It is obvious that an FIR ﬁlter has only zeros and no poles.
Audio Bandwidth Extension: Application of Psychoacoustics, Signal Processing and Loudspeaker Design by Erik Larsen, Ronald M. Aarts