By F. A. Middlemiss B. Sc. Ph. D. (auth.)
This ebook is essentially meant to aid applicants learning geology for the normal point of G.c.E., and examinations of similar regular, however it also needs to be stumbled on worthy through the" reader requiring a speedy conspectus of the geological background of england, and as forming a foundation for extra complex paintings. The scope of the subject material necessitated a slim and slippery direction be tween over-simplification and over the top aspect, however the stability followed relies upon the adventure of a long time of educating in any respect degrees, and of studying for the London G.C.E. Board. The maps, combining outcrop dis tribution with palaeogeography, awarded a few hassle, particularly for sessions of continually altering geography, resembling the Cretaceous. It used to be worthy in those circumstances to make an arbitrary collection of one small a part of the interval, the geography of that may be illustrated. applicants are suggested to not spend time studying each element of the outcrop styles, yet to con centrate upon the most parts of outcrop. i'm indebted to Mrs. Jean Fyffe for the cartographic work.
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A point of great economic importance is the local occurrence of iron ores. These are sedimentary oolitic ironstones, consisting essentially of ooliths of iron silicate in a matrix of iron carbonate; they occur especially in the Middle Lias around Banbury, Oxfordshire, and in the Cleveland Hills of north-east Yorkshire, but also in the Lower Lias of north Lincolnshire, where they are the basis for the Scunthorpe steel industry. In contrast to the uniformity of at least the lower part of the Lias, the Middle Jurassic rocks which come above are extremely varied.
All these beds indicate a general retreat of the sea. Only the lower part of the Oligocene is represented in Britain, and even that is confined to the Isle of Wight and the opposite mainland coast (apart from outliers in Dorset and Devon). This is because of the Alpine folding which, about the end of Oligocene times, folded and uplifted the beds and led to severe erosion. Meanwhile in western Scotland and northern Ireland Eocene rocks of a 39 o Sea Level • Gravel London Clay Woolwich Beds & Thanet Sand feet 0 metres 0 100 25 50 75 200 Chalk 300 100 400 Upp'er Greensand Gault Clay Great Oolite Old Red Sandstone 18 A Bore-hole Under London Note the great unconformity between the Jurassic and the Upper Palaeozoic, and the absence of nearly all the Mesozoic below the Gault.
10, fig. 14, fig. 22 correlation of strata 6, 7,9,24, fig. 2 48 Cotswold Hills 32, fig. 16, fig. 22 Cretaceous system 35, 42, fig. 3 Criffel Granite 19, fig. 8 crinoids 23 cross bedding 6 culm 25 Cumberland 28, fig. 14 cycle of sedimentation 39 cyclothem 27, fig. II Dalradian rocks II, 15, 19 Dartmoor 28, 38, fig. 14 Derbyshire 24, 28, fig. 10, fig. 14 Devonian system 19,20,23,27, fig. 3 Devonshire 20, 23, 25, 27, 28, 36, 38, 39, 42, fig. 9, fig. 10, fig. 12, fig. 14, fig. 17, fig. 21, fig. 22 dinosaurs 39 Dorset 35, 36, 38, 39, 42, fig.
British Stratigraphy by F. A. Middlemiss B. Sc. Ph. D. (auth.)