By Soberón, Mario
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Additional resources for Bt resistance : characterization and strategies for GM crops producing bacillus thuringiensis toxins
2009) identified a deletion mutation of APN (HaAPN1) in laboratory-selected Cry1Ac-resistant strains of H. armigera by using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. Similarly, a GPI-anchored ALP in the midgut epithelium of H. , 2010). , 2011). 4 Resistance Monitoring of Cotton Bollworm to Bt-Cry1Ac Cotton Resistance monitoring is generally accepted as an integral tool for managing resistance. In China, the susceptibility of H. armigera field populations to the Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ac was monitored using traditional bioassays from 1997 to 2006 (Wu, 2007).
L. (2010) Characterization of a Cry1Ac toxinbinding alkaline phosphatase in the midgut from Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae. Journal of Insect Physiology 56, 666–672. , Bielza, P. S. (2013) A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane point mutation (G275E) associated with resistance to spinosad in Frankliniella occidentalis. Journal of Neurochemistry 124, 590–601. A. et al. (2009) Resistance of Helicoverpa armigera to Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is due to improper processing of the protoxin.
2011). , 2013). 2 million ha (James, 2013). 3 million ha, making it the second largest country cultivating transgenic plants in the world and the first largest in Latin America, where it accounted for 57% of the planting in the region (James, 2013). 4 million ha, followed by Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, Mexico and Colombia. GM plants are also found in Chile, Cuba, Costa Rica and Puerto Rico. 1 shows the Latin American countries in which GM crops are planted, along with the acreage and crops planted (James, 2013).
Bt resistance : characterization and strategies for GM crops producing bacillus thuringiensis toxins by Soberón, Mario