By Clive Davies
Calculations in Furnace expertise offers the theoretical and functional elements of furnace expertise. This ebook presents info pertinent to the advance, software, and potency of furnace know-how.
Organized into 8 chapters, this ebook starts with an summary of the exothermic reactions that happen while carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to liberate the power to be had within the gas. this article then evaluates the efficiencies to degree the amount of gasoline used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air getting into, and the warmth misplaced to the environment. different chapters examine that you will need to ensure the quantity of carbon discharged with the ashes, the volume and composition of any tar produced, in order that a carbon stability might be utilized. the ultimate bankruptcy describes some of the reactions in the furnace surroundings and among fees and surroundings.
This e-book is a worthwhile source for gas technologists, heating and ventilating engineers, and plant operators.
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Additional resources for Calculations in Furnace Technology. Division of Materials Science and Technology
3). Hence there m u s t be some actual loss of carbon o u t of the system. This loss can be estimated in the following way. If X kg-mol of carbon remain u n b u r n e d (either as soot or in ashes) then the oxygen required is less a n d becomes 63 — X kg-mol (6-3 kg-mol is the theoretical C value in t h e as-fired coal). This quantity of oxygen is associated with 2 7 - 4 — 3 - 7 6 kg-mol of nitrogen a n d the carbon in t h e gases is 6-3— X kga t o m (3-76 = 7 9 / 2 1 ) . F r o m the reconstituted analysis 13-0 kga t o m of carbon are associated with 57-94 kg-mol of nitrogen from the air actually burned.
7-31X22-4X100 Air required A = — = 773 m . 3 Air required to b u r n 1 kg of coal completely 3 = 7-73 m at N T P . ) (b) Theoretical air requirement (mass). Oxygen requirement = 7-31 kg-mol — 7 - 3 1 x 3 2 kg-wt. _t . , * · 7-31X32X100 ^ Λη Λ ί Ί Therefore weight of air = = 1017 kg. Weight of air per p o u n d of coal b u r n e d = 10-17 kg. 14 A coal containing 79-9% C, 5-0% H , 4 - 3 % O, 1-1 % S, a n d 1-9 % Ν is used as fuel in a brick kiln. (a) Calculate the theoretical volume of air a t N T P required for the complete combustion of 1 kg of this coal.
With 20 % excess air the denominator is increased by 20 % of the theoretical air. ) With 2 0 % excess air: C O 2 = - ^ X l 0 0 = 15-4%. 0 2 = volume of oxygen χ total volume 1 QQ Since oxygen is 21 % of air by volume, the volume of 0 2 3 = — X l - 5 5 = 0-326 m . 0*326 Hence 0 2 percentage = -T^F-XIOO = 3-5%. With 4 0 % excess air: 40 Volume of combustion products = 7-5 + — - - X 7 - 8 = 10-62 m 3 . = - j — X 100 = 13-2%. 21 volume = - — X 3 ' 1 = ° ' 6 5 m 3- C02 0 2 0 2 = ^ S x i o o = 6 %o - Percentages of carbon dioxide a n d oxygen for excess air values of 60, 80, and 100% are calculated in a similar manner.
Calculations in Furnace Technology. Division of Materials Science and Technology by Clive Davies