By M R Rixom,N P Mailvaganam,ebrary, Inc.
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Extra info for Chemical admixtures for concrete
4 The effects of water-reducing admixtures on the properties of concrete . The properties of concrete can be considered in terms of a number of stages: 1. The initial plastic state of the fresh concrete subsequent to the mixing process, where properties such as the air content, density and workability are normally measured by relevant standard tests, and utilized as a means of control of production. The magnitude of these properties is affected by the addition of waterreducing admixtures, either intentionally or as a side effect, which could result not only in a change in the characteristics in the plastic state, but could also be reflected in changed properties in the hardened state.
PEAK 2 During this phase the initial self-retarding calcium silicate hydrate layer appears to break down, allowing further hydration products from the C3S and C2S phases to be formed. These appear to be produced in three morphological forms, plate-like, needles and crumpled foils. During this reaction considerable quantities of hexagonal prisms of precipitated lime are also formed. PEAK 3 In this final peak, the remaining tricalcium aluminate reacts with both gypsum and water to form ettringite and subsequently the tricalcium aluminate monosulfate.
1 Lignosulfonates Lignin is a complex material which makes up approximately 20% of the composition of wood. During the process for the production of paper-making pulp from wood, a waste liquor is formed as a by-product containing a complex mixture of substances, including decomposition products of lignin and cellulose, sulfonation products of lignin, various carbohydrates (sugars) and free sulfurous acid or sulfates. Subsequent neutralization, precipitation and fermentation processes  produce a range of lignosulfonates of varying purity and composition depending on a number of factors, such as the neutralizing alkali, the pulping process used, the degree of fermentation and even the type and age of the wood used as pulp feedstock .
Chemical admixtures for concrete by M R Rixom,N P Mailvaganam,ebrary, Inc.