By Tadeusz Urbanski
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3 Significance of Water for Energy Conversion Many of the physical, chemical, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of water can be used for the conversion, transport, and storage of energy. Some techniques have been in use by humans for thousands of years, while others have only very recently been developed. Water molecules are inert compounds with a low redox potential that can be used for the conversion and storage of energy, for example, thermal energy. However, water can also be dissociated into hydrogen gas by electrolysis, which is a highly combustible fuel in itself.
Care must be taken in the case of a temperature below 0 C because freezing of the thermometer may occur. The scaling parameters of the thermometer may be different, which needs to be accounted for. Moreover, the water vapor pressure above ice (instead of water) is the appropriate parameter, that is, pN e ¼ esi ðT i Þ À 0:574 hPa KÀ1 Á ðT À T i Þ Á ð2:14Þ 1006:6 hPa for Ti ¼ À60 to 0 C. Dry Bulb Temperature Symbol: Unit: Deﬁnition: T C This parameter denotes the temperature measured by the dry thermometer of a psychrometer.
This energy can then be used to pump the water to a higher level, thus increasing the potential energy of the water. At times when the consumption of energy is higher than that generated, the water can be directed through turbines to generate additional electrical energy. Tidal and wave power plants convert the kinetic energy of water due to the tides into electrical energy. These are only a few examples of how electrical energy can be generated either directly from or by the involvement of water.
Chemistry and Technology of Explosives: by Tadeusz Urbanski