By V. A. Parthasarathy, B. Chempakam, T. J. Zachariah
Spices are excessive price, export-oriented vegetation used greatly in nutrients and beverage flavorings, drugs, cosmetics and perfumes. curiosity is starting to be even though within the theoretical and useful elements of the biosynthetic mechanisms of lively parts in spices in addition to the connection among the organic task and chemical constitution of those secondary metabolites. a wide selection of phenolic elements and amides derived from spices were stumbled on to own powerful chemopreventive, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic homes. Representing the 1st dialogue of the chemical houses of a large move part of vital spices, this publication covers broadly the three vast different types of plant-derived typical items: the terpenoids, the alkaloids and the phenyl propanoids and allied phenolic compounds. Spice vegetation resembling black pepper, ginger, turmeric and coriander are coated with info on botany, composition, makes use of, chemistry, foreign necessities and the houses of a large variety of universal and unusual spices.
Spices lined comprise: • Black pepper • Cardamom • Ginger • Turmeric • Cinnamon • Vanilla • Coriander • Cumin • Fennel • Fenugreek Celery • Ajowan • celebrity Anise • Aniseed • Parsley • Cassia • mace Paprika • Clove • Nutmeg • Garcinia • Tamarind
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Additional resources for Chemistry of spices
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops 11(2), 122–124. H. S. (1984) Pharmacological study of piperine. Archives of Pharmacal Research 7, 127–132. S. and Krishnamurthy, N. (1969) Composition of pepper oil. Perfumery and Essential Oil Records 60, 259–262. G. C. (1990) Oil and oleoresin from Indian spices. In: Sen, N. L. 189–195. , Kurian, T. and Verghese, J. (1995) Comparison between green and black pepper oils from Piper nigrum L. berries of Indian and Sri Lankan origin. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 10(1), 47–50.
World production and export of black pepper (t). Country Brazil India Indonesia Malaysia Sri Lanka Thailand IPC countries Other countries World Production Export 25,400 58,600 47,700 21,500 4,400 8,600 166,200 30,600 196,800 23,300 31,800 41,600 21,600 3,700 2,300 124,300 19,200 143,500 Source: International Pepper Community. 2. Botany and Uses Botany The black pepper of commerce is the matured dried fruits (berries) of the tropical, perennial plant P. nigrum L. of the Piperaceae family. The common black pepper is found extensively in the evergreen forests of Western Ghats and adjoining areas, almost from sea level up to an elevation of 1300 m.
MONOTERPENE HYDROCARBONS AND OXYGENATED COM- There are 15 monoterpene hydrocarbons identified so far and they are camphene, δ3-carene, p-cymene, limonene, myrcene, cis-ocimene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene and α- and β-pinenes, sabinene, α- and γterpinenes, terpinolene and α-thujene. About 43 oxygenated compounds of a monoterpenoid nature have been characterized. Popular oxygenated monoterpenes are borneol, camphor, carvacrol, cis-carveol, trans-carveol, carvone, carvetanacetone, 1,8-cineole, cryptone, p-cymene-8-ol, pcymene-8-methyl ether, dihydrocarveol, dihydrocarvone, linalool, cis-2-menthadien-2-ol, 3,8(9)-p-menthadien-1-ol, 1(7)-pmenthadien-6-ol, 1(7)-p-menthadien-4-ol, 1,8(9)-p-menthadien-5-ol, 1,8(9)-p-menthadien-4-ol, cis-p-2-menthen-1-ol, myrtenal, myrtenol, methyl carvacrol, trans-pinocarveol, pinocamphone, cis-sabinene hydrate, trans-sabinene hydrate, 1-terpinen-4-ol, 1terpinen-5-ol, α-terpeneol, 1,1,4,trimethylc yclohepta-2,4-dien-6-ol, phellandral, piperitone, citronellal, nerol, geraniol, isopinocamphone, methyl citronellate, methyl geranate, α-terpenyl acetate, terpenolene epoxide and trans-limonene epoxide (Pino and Borges, 1999).
Chemistry of spices by V. A. Parthasarathy, B. Chempakam, T. J. Zachariah