By Johann Eekhoff, Christiane Moch (auth.), Johann Eekhoff (eds.)
1 by means of Karel Van Miert because the early years of the eu group, festival coverage has performed a decisive function within the production of a extra filthy rich, aggressive and built-in ecu economic system. during the last 40 years, the motion of ecu pageant experts has supplied various examples of the advantages of a sound-working pageant atmosphere for shoppers and for the ecu economic climate as an entire. festival brings decrease costs, fosters technical growth and creativity, and forestalls the unwanted effects of an organization abusing its dominant or monopoly place. in the course of my mandate as a Commissioner in control of festival, i've got actively inspired this strengthening of eu festival coverage as did my predecessors. consequently, there was turning out to be public wisdom in Europe of the necessity at no cost and reasonable pageant in addition to the consolidation of the contest coverage within the "acquis communautaire". eu festival coverage is now at a tuming turning aspect in its background. In may well 2004, ten nations will sign up for a brand new ecu Union composed of twenty-five Member States and 450 million humans. this large accession to the european is of paramount significance to the eu integration and should deeply effect on eu festival policy.
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Additional resources for Competition Policy in Europe
With the exception of the creation of an EC merger control system in 1989, the fundamental competition rules have changed very little fittle during the 30 years following the Treaty of Rome and its first implementation regulations in the 1960's. The remarkable stability of EC competition rules during this period is a testament to rhe original aims of the rhe policy. their efficiency and their success in fulfilling the In the 1990's, some of ofthese these rules have started to be reformed in order to adapt to a changing environment (internal market, EMU, preparation for enlargement, globalisation, development of new technologies and new markets), and to address globatisation, emerging concerns of competition practitioners.
2 Reforms since the 1990's Several reforms have been launched in the 1990's to adapt to this changing environment and to address the growing issues regarding the efficiency efftciency of enforcement of competition policy. 1 Reform of the rules Art 81, 82 The Commission has started to review the tools used in art 81 and 82 cases in order to improve the efficiency efftciency of its investigations and to give better guidance to market participants. One of these new tools was the "leniency notice".
Articles. For example, applying State aid rules in 1996, the Commission prohibited part of the € 398 million aid granted by the German authorities to Volkswagen plants in Eastem Eastern Germany. In this case, the Commission held that while some of the aid package could prove necessary to encourage economic development of a less favoured region, another part of the aid was not justified by regional development considerations and could have a damaging impact on fair competition in the car sector.
Competition Policy in Europe by Johann Eekhoff, Christiane Moch (auth.), Johann Eekhoff (eds.)