By Keith Bradley, Alan H. Gelb
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Even though the agricultural commuter belts of towns are significant loci of inhabitants swap, financial progress and dynamic social swap inside urban areas, so much examine has a tendency to disregard this sector whereas concentrating on the built-up urban center. even if, with the present emphasis at the function of rural parts in coverage debates, it is necessary to acknowledge the significance of the 'commuter belt'.
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Extra resources for Cooperation at work: the Mondragón experience
Whereas the selection procedures of the latter tend to be individualistic and narrowly job-related, it may be that other criteria are applied by the Z firms as well. They have been observed to possess more homogeneous workforces than the A firms, although they are undoubtedly less homogeneous than Japanese corporations because of their relatively heterogeneous environment and the absence of pre-selection forces towards conformism. Socio cultural homogeneity almost surely eases the task of sustaining consensus and creating a sense of group identity, so that selection .
2 Two firms were chosen: Union Carrejera was the major employer in Mondragon before the cooperative move ment became established and is comparable to Ulgor. Mayc in Vitoria is located in a large industrial area and in product and technology is comparable with local cooperatives. Obtaining the cooperation of trade unions in the comparator firms proved to be more difficult than persuading management to permit the surveys. Overall, 280 responses were achieved . The first survey covered eleven cooperatives, concentrating on Ulgor and Arrasate in Mondragon.
While the leading sectors in the advanced countries may be little more physical capital-intensive than the more traditional, contracting, usually import-competing sectors they are invariably more intensive in research and development spending and in human capital. Employees in these sectors are more highly educated on average, and, in the United States at least, are known to include a smaller fraction of minority groups. Human capital intensity undermines traditional control methods. Scientific management has been applied to lower clerical grades but, because of the difficulty of measuring the productivity of service occupations and the impossibility of fragmenting and de-skilling many service tasks, has yet to be applied consistently in service sectors.
Cooperation at work: the Mondragón experience by Keith Bradley, Alan H. Gelb