By Lisa Lai-Shen Cheng, Norbert Corver
Prognosis is an important a part of clinical study. It refers back to the means of determining a phenomenon, estate, or at the foundation of yes symptoms and by way of quite a few diagnostic approaches. This publication is the 1st ever to think about using diagnostics in syntactic learn and makes a speciality of the 5 middle domain names of average language syntax - ellipsis, contract, anaphora, phrasal flow, and head circulate. every one empirical area is taken into account in flip from the views of syntax, syntax on the interfaces, neuropsycholinguistics, and language variety. Drawing at the services of 20 top students and their empirically wealthy information, the publication offers present innovations on, and functional solutions to, the query What are the diagnostic indicators, recommendations and techniques that may be used to examine average language syntax? it is going to curiosity linguists, together with formalists, typologists, psycholinguists and neurolinguists.
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One difference is that a head cannot head move out of its maximal functional projection, hence V cannot head move out of CP. There is no such restriction on phrasal movement. Thus the noun phrase the book in (3) is ﬁrst merged in the lower subordinate clause, but is spelled-out in the matrix clause. The initial verb in (4) cannot have its origin in the embedded clause: (3) This book, John thinks that Eva read last summer. (4) a. *Has Mary said that John stolen the book? b. Has Mary said that John stole the book?
Denna this bok book har has John John läst. read (Swedish) In Swedish, but not in English, topicalization of an object is accompanied by verb second. Semantically, the two utterances are identical. Hence, the spell-out positions of the ﬁnite verb in (27a) and (27b) do not seem to have any semantic effect. 10 See Julien (2007) and Buell et al. (2008) for counterexamples. 32 Christer Platzack A second indication that verb movement does not have a semantic effect is based on the fact that Negative Polarity Verbs do not have to be c-commanded by the NPI licenser, as Negative Polarity Phrases must.
4 Relativized Minimality That displacement of a head is blocked by a higher phonologically expressed head in the same extended projection chain of heads, is a strong diagnostics for HM: a verb cannot move across an auxiliary (20a), whereas a subject DP may (20b). Likewise, the object DP in (21a) cannot move across the subject DP,9 but the auxiliary head in (21b) can: this follows from Relativized Minimality, Rizzi (1990). (20) a. *John thrown had thrown the ball b. John had John thrown the ball.
Diagnosing Syntax by Lisa Lai-Shen Cheng, Norbert Corver