By Yitzchak Gutterman
Annual wasteland plant species of unrelated taxa within the Negev desolate tract of Israel have constructed complementary units of diversifications and survival suggestions as ecological equivalents with physiological, morphological and anatomical resemblances, within the a number of levels in their lifestyles cycles. After forty years of study in scorching deserts Yitzchak Gutterman presents a complete treatise of such diversifications and methods. In doing so he covers the next issues: post-maturation basic seed dormancy, which prevents germination of maturing seeds sooner than the summer season; seed dispersal mechanisms with get away or safety concepts; wary or opportunistic germination techniques; seedling drought tolerance. The day-length is a vital consider regulating flowering in addition to the phenotypic plasticity of seed germination that's additionally tormented by maternal factors.
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Extra info for Survival Strategies of Annual Desert Plants
Sieberi are facultative short-day plants for flowering during their first year, but the adult plants are short-day plants for flowering (Pourrat 1974; Mott and Chouard 1978; Evenari and Gutterman 1985). In the Negev, under their natural conditions, flower bud initiation develops during short days between December and February. The flower buds appear from April to May, at which time the temperature and solar radiation begin to become very high. High radiation prevents flowering and anthesis, even in plants under artificial irrigation in otherwise natural habitats (Sankary and Barbour 1972; Evenari and Gutterman 1985).
16), as well as standard m eteorological temperatures near Sede Boker, be fore , du rin g and after rai nfalls fro m 14-29 January 1997 (Fig. 18A, B). (Gutterman 1997b) Locations and temperatures Date Rain- Temp. Soil Surface (1) fall (mm) Time Max. Min. Diff. Jan. Digging Max. Min. 07 (7:00) Stand ard meteororological temperatur es Diff. Max. Min. Diff. ,~~~~~~~~~~~ 0:10 4:10 6:10 12:10 16:10 20:10 0:10 4:10 8:10 12:10 16:10 20:10 0:10 25 8 21January 1997 22 Janu ary 1997 20 E 15 ~ -[e IO ~ o+--~-~ 25 0:10 4:10 __ 8:10 I mm beJow soll sm1ace __ 1 mm below sous urt ace In dlggmg ~ _ ~ _ ~ _ ~ 12:10 16:10 20:10 0:10 23 January 1997 ~ 4:10 __ ~ _ ~ 8:10 12:10 16:10 ~ ~ 20:10 0:10 24 January 1997 20 E 21 5 "1~IO J ~ = o+--~-~-~-~-~-~-~-_-~-_-_-~ 0:10 4:10 8:10 12:10 16:10 20:10 0:10 4:10 8:10 12:10 16:10 20:10 0:10 TIM E Fig.
L Fig. 10. a Tulipa systola Stapf. (Liliaceae) with a cluster of subterranean bulbs . b The plant after a porcupine has consumed the cluster of bulb lets leaving the lowest one beneath the soil at the bottom of the digging, The plant has renewed itself in the digging, which has provided a good micro-habitat accumulating runoff water (HP), organic matter (C), seeds (D) and soil particles (E). (Adapted from Gutterman 1982a) 120 a El 100 8 80 El U 0 0 ...... 60 ~ § ......
Survival Strategies of Annual Desert Plants by Yitzchak Gutterman